Home Artificial Intelligence weighted quantile summaries, energy iteration clustering, spark_write_rds(), and extra

weighted quantile summaries, energy iteration clustering, spark_write_rds(), and extra

weighted quantile summaries, energy iteration clustering, spark_write_rds(), and extra


Sparklyr 1.6 is now accessible on CRAN!

To put in sparklyr 1.6 from CRAN, run

On this weblog put up, we will spotlight the next options and enhancements
from sparklyr 1.6:

Weighted quantile summaries

Apache Spark is well-known for supporting
approximate algorithms that commerce off marginal quantities of accuracy for higher
pace and parallelism.
Such algorithms are significantly useful for performing preliminary knowledge
explorations at scale, as they permit customers to shortly question sure estimated
statistics inside a predefined error margin, whereas avoiding the excessive value of
actual computations.
One instance is the Greenwald-Khanna algorithm for on-line computation of quantile
summaries, as described in Greenwald and Khanna (2001).
This algorithm was initially designed for environment friendly (epsilon)
approximation of quantiles inside a big dataset with out the notion of information
factors carrying totally different weights, and the unweighted model of it has been
applied as
since Spark 2.0.
Nevertheless, the identical algorithm will be generalized to deal with weighted
inputs, and as sparklyr consumer @Zhuk66 talked about
in this subject, a
weighted model
of this algorithm makes for a helpful sparklyr function.

To correctly clarify what weighted-quantile means, we should make clear what the
weight of every knowledge level signifies. For instance, if we have now a sequence of
observations ((1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 2, -1, -1)), and want to approximate the
median of all knowledge factors, then we have now the next two choices:

  • Both run the unweighted model of approxQuantile() in Spark to scan
    via all 8 knowledge factors

  • Or alternatively, “compress” the info into 4 tuples of (worth, weight):
    ((1, 0.5), (0, 0.125), (2, 0.125), (-1, 0.25)), the place the second element of
    every tuple represents how usually a worth happens relative to the remainder of the
    noticed values, after which discover the median by scanning via the 4 tuples
    utilizing the weighted model of the Greenwald-Khanna algorithm

We are able to additionally run via a contrived instance involving the usual regular
distribution for example the facility of weighted quantile estimation in
sparklyr 1.6. Suppose we can’t merely run qnorm() in R to guage the
quantile perform
of the usual regular distribution at (p = 0.25) and (p = 0.75), how can
we get some obscure concept concerning the 1st and third quantiles of this distribution?
A technique is to pattern a lot of knowledge factors from this distribution, and
then apply the Greenwald-Khanna algorithm to our unweighted samples, as proven


sc <- spark_connect(grasp = "native")

num_samples <- 1e6
samples <- knowledge.body(x = rnorm(num_samples))

samples_sdf <- copy_to(sc, samples, identify = random_string())

samples_sdf %>%
    column = "x",
    chances = c(0.25, 0.75),
    relative.error = 0.01
  ) %>%
##        25%        75%
## -0.6629242  0.6874939

Discover that as a result of we’re working with an approximate algorithm, and have specified
relative.error = 0.01, the estimated worth of (-0.6629242) from above
could possibly be wherever between the twenty fourth and the twenty sixth percentile of all samples.
In actual fact, it falls within the (25.36896)-th percentile:

## [1] 0.2536896

Now how can we make use of weighted quantile estimation from sparklyr 1.6 to
receive comparable outcomes? Easy! We are able to pattern a lot of (x) values
uniformly randomly from ((-infty, infty)) (or alternatively, simply choose a
massive variety of values evenly spaced between ((-M, M)) the place (M) is
roughly (infty)), and assign every (x) worth a weight of
(displaystyle frac{1}{sqrt{2 pi}}e^{-frac{x^2}{2}}), the usual regular
distribution’s chance density at (x). Lastly, we run the weighted model
of sdf_quantile() from sparklyr 1.6, as proven under:


sc <- spark_connect(grasp = "native")

num_samples <- 1e6
M <- 1000
samples <- tibble::tibble(
  x = M * seq(-num_samples / 2 + 1, num_samples / 2) / num_samples,
  weight = dnorm(x)

samples_sdf <- copy_to(sc, samples, identify = random_string())

samples_sdf %>%
    column = "x",
    weight.column = "weight",
    chances = c(0.25, 0.75),
    relative.error = 0.01
  ) %>%
##    25%    75%
## -0.696  0.662

Voilà! The estimates are usually not too far off from the twenty fifth and seventy fifth percentiles (in
relation to our abovementioned most permissible error of (0.01)):

## [1] 0.2432144
## [1] 0.7460144

Energy iteration clustering

Energy iteration clustering (PIC), a easy and scalable graph clustering methodology
offered in Lin and Cohen (2010), first finds a low-dimensional embedding of a dataset, utilizing
truncated energy iteration on a normalized pairwise-similarity matrix of all knowledge
factors, after which makes use of this embedding because the “cluster indicator,” an intermediate
illustration of the dataset that results in quick convergence when used as enter
to k-means clustering. This course of may be very properly illustrated in determine 1
of Lin and Cohen (2010) (reproduced under)

by which the leftmost picture is the visualization of a dataset consisting of three
circles, with factors coloured in crimson, inexperienced, and blue indicating clustering
outcomes, and the following pictures present the facility iteration course of regularly
reworking the unique set of factors into what seems to be three disjoint line
segments, an intermediate illustration that may be quickly separated into 3
clusters utilizing k-means clustering with (okay = 3).

In sparklyr 1.6, ml_power_iteration() was applied to make the
PIC performance
in Spark accessible from R. It expects as enter a 3-column Spark dataframe that
represents a pairwise-similarity matrix of all knowledge factors. Two of
the columns on this dataframe ought to comprise 0-based row and column indices, and
the third column ought to maintain the corresponding similarity measure.
Within the instance under, we’ll see a dataset consisting of two circles being
simply separated into two clusters by ml_power_iteration(), with the Gaussian
kernel getting used because the similarity measure between any 2 factors:

gen_similarity_matrix <- perform() {
  # Guassian similarity measure
  guassian_similarity <- perform(pt1, pt2) {
    exp(-sum((pt2 - pt1) ^ 2) / 2)
  # generate evenly distributed factors on a circle centered on the origin
  gen_circle <- perform(radius, num_pts) {
    seq(0, num_pts - 1) %>%
        perform(idx) {
          theta <- 2 * pi * idx / num_pts
          radius * c(x = cos(theta), y = sin(theta))
  # generate factors on each circles
  pts <- rbind(
    gen_circle(radius = 1, num_pts = 80),
    gen_circle(radius = 4, num_pts = 80)
  # populate the pairwise similarity matrix (saved as a 3-column dataframe)
  similarity_matrix <- knowledge.body()
  for (i in seq(2, nrow(pts)))
    similarity_matrix <- similarity_matrix %>%
      rbind(seq(i - 1L) %>%
        purrr::map_dfr(~ record(
          src = i - 1L, dst = .x - 1L,
          similarity = guassian_similarity(pts[i,], pts[.x,])



sc <- spark_connect(grasp = "native")
sdf <- copy_to(sc, gen_similarity_matrix())
clusters <- ml_power_iteration(
  sdf, okay = 2, max_iter = 10, init_mode = "diploma",
  src_col = "src", dst_col = "dst", weight_col = "similarity"

clusters %>% print(n = 160)
## # A tibble: 160 x 2
##        id cluster
##     <dbl>   <int>
##   1     0       1
##   2     1       1
##   3     2       1
##   4     3       1
##   5     4       1
##   ...
##   157   156       0
##   158   157       0
##   159   158       0
##   160   159       0

The output exhibits factors from the 2 circles being assigned to separate clusters,
as anticipated, after solely a small variety of PIC iterations.

spark_write_rds() + collect_from_rds()

spark_write_rds() and collect_from_rds() are applied as a much less memory-
consuming different to gather(). Not like gather(), which retrieves all
components of a Spark dataframe via the Spark driver node, therefore doubtlessly
inflicting slowness or out-of-memory failures when gathering massive quantities of information,
spark_write_rds(), when used at the side of collect_from_rds(), can
retrieve all partitions of a Spark dataframe straight from Spark employees,
somewhat than via the Spark driver node.
First, spark_write_rds() will
distribute the duties of serializing Spark dataframe partitions in RDS model
2 format amongst Spark employees. Spark employees can then course of a number of partitions
in parallel, every dealing with one partition at a time and persisting the RDS output
on to disk, somewhat than sending dataframe partitions to the Spark driver
node. Lastly, the RDS outputs will be re-assembled to R dataframes utilizing

Proven under is an instance of spark_write_rds() + collect_from_rds() utilization,
the place RDS outputs are first saved to HDFS, then downloaded to the native
filesystem with hadoop fs -get, and eventually, post-processed with


num_partitions <- 10L
sc <- spark_connect(grasp = "yarn", spark_home = "/usr/lib/spark")
flights_sdf <- copy_to(sc, flights, repartition = num_partitions)

# Spark employees serialize all partition in RDS format in parallel and write RDS
# outputs to HDFS
  dest_uri = "hdfs://<namenode>:8020/flights-part-{partitionId}.rds"

# Run `hadoop fs -get` to obtain RDS information from HDFS to native file system
for (partition in seq(num_partitions) - 1)
    c("fs", "-get", sprintf("hdfs://<namenode>:8020/flights-part-%d.rds", partition))

# Submit-process RDS outputs
partitions <- seq(num_partitions) - 1 %>%
  lapply(perform(partition) collect_from_rds(sprintf("flights-part-%d.rds", partition)))

# Optionally, name `rbind()` to mix knowledge from all partitions right into a single R dataframe
flights_df <- do.name(rbind, partitions)

Just like different current sparklyr releases, sparklyr 1.6 comes with a
variety of dplyr-related enhancements, corresponding to

  • Assist for the place() predicate inside choose() and summarize(throughout(...))
    operations on Spark dataframes
  • Addition of if_all() and if_any() capabilities
  • Full compatibility with dbplyr 2.0 backend API

choose(the place(...)) and summarize(throughout(the place(...)))

The dplyr the place(...) assemble is beneficial for making use of a range or
aggregation perform to a number of columns that fulfill some boolean predicate.
For instance,

returns all numeric columns from the iris dataset, and

computes the common of every numeric column.

In sparklyr 1.6, each forms of operations will be utilized to Spark dataframes, e.g.,

if_all() and if_any()

if_all() and if_any() are two comfort capabilities from dplyr 1.0.4 (see
right here for extra particulars)
that successfully
mix the outcomes of making use of a boolean predicate to a tidy choice of columns
utilizing the logical and/or operators.

Ranging from sparklyr 1.6, if_all() and if_any() can be utilized to
Spark dataframes, .e.g.,

Compatibility with dbplyr 2.0 backend API

Sparklyr 1.6 is totally suitable with the newer dbplyr 2.0 backend API (by
implementing all interface adjustments beneficial in
right here), whereas nonetheless
sustaining backward compatibility with the earlier version of dbplyr API, so
that sparklyr customers won’t be compelled to modify to any specific model of

This ought to be a principally non-user-visible change as of now. In actual fact, the one
discernible conduct change would be the following code


[1] 2

if sparklyr is working with dbplyr 2.0+, and

[1] 1

if in any other case.


In chronological order, we want to thank the next contributors for
making sparklyr 1.6 superior:

We might additionally like to offer an enormous shout-out to the great open-source group
behind sparklyr, with out whom we’d not have benefitted from quite a few
sparklyr-related bug reviews and have strategies.

Lastly, the creator of this weblog put up additionally very a lot appreciates the extremely
beneficial editorial strategies from @skeydan.

Should you want to be taught extra about sparklyr, we suggest testing
sparklyr.ai, spark.rstudio.com,
and in addition some earlier sparklyr launch posts corresponding to
sparklyr 1.5
and sparklyr 1.4.

That’s all. Thanks for studying!

Greenwald, Michael, and Sanjeev Khanna. 2001. “House-Environment friendly On-line Computation of Quantile Summaries.” SIGMOD Rec. 30 (2): 58–66. https://doi.org/10.1145/376284.375670.

Lin, Frank, and William Cohen. 2010. “Energy Iteration Clustering.” In, 655–62.


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