Find out how to Create CSS Ribbon Shapes with a Single Factor — SitePoint

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On this article, I’ll present you how you can use fashionable CSS tips to create fancy CSS ribbon shapes with minimal code. As an additional bonus, our ribbons could have hover animations!

CSS ribbons are all over the place, and you could find a ton of articles about them, however the ones we’ll create listed here are a bit particular. We’re going to depend on a single aspect to create every of the shapes, and CSS variables to simply management them. We aren’t going to depend on mounted dimensions or magic numbers. The shapes will match their content material so that you don’t have to fret concerning the textual content inside.

I’ve made a set of CSS ribbon shapes with loads of cool examples, and on this article, we’re going to review two sorts of them, pictured beneath.

Folded ribbon and rotated ribbon

I’ll be calling the left one the “folded ribbon” and the fitting one the “rotated ribbon”.

Making a CSS Folded Ribbon Form

Step one in creating our folded CSS ribbon is to outline the variables of our form.

Naming parts of our ribbon shape: r for the depth of the front arrow and end cutout, and s for the height of the fold

.ribbon {
  --r: 20px; 
  --s: 20px; 
  --c: #d81a14;
}

Two variables will management the form, and one variable will management the colour.

Now let’s transfer to the code. We’re primarily going to depend on clip-path. The picture beneath illustrates the polygon form we’re going to make use of.

The rectangle ribbon clipped at both ends

We add some padding to keep away from chopping the textual content, then we apply the clip-path:

.ribbon {
  --r: 20px; 
  --s: 20px; 
  --c: #d81a14;

  line-height: 1.6; 
  padding-inline: 1.2lh calc(var(--r) + .2lh);
  background: var(--c);
  clip-path: polygon(1lh 0,100% 0,calc(100% - var(--r)) 50%,100% 100%,100% 100%, 0 100%,0 100%); 
}

Utilizing the CSS lh unit

It’s possible you’ll be questioning what’s happening with the lh unit. It’s a brand new unit that corresponds to the line-height worth. Since we’re utilizing one line of textual content, the line-height setting is what controls the peak, so 1lh is equal to the peak of the aspect, which is tremendous helpful. (You possibly can learn extra concerning the lh unit in An Overview of CSS Sizing Models.)

In clip-path, I would like to chop the form of an isosceles triangle, and to do that I have to know the peak of the aspect. 1lh is the same as that peak.

A corner triangle with sides measuring 1lh

Now, to create the folded half, we’re nonetheless going to make use of clip-path and replace the earlier polygon. The cool factor about clip-path is that it may well reduce “exterior” the boundaries of the aspect. It could sound stunning or perhaps ineffective, provided that we have now nothing exterior, but it surely means we will embrace issues like box-shadow, define, pseudo-elements, and so forth.

In our case, we’ll depend on box-shadow. The picture beneath illustrates the trick.

A half-circle shadow underneath the pointy end of the ribbon

Observe how I’m updating the clip-path to incorporate 4 new factors, three of that are exterior the aspect. For the reason that half we’re chopping is exterior, it’s not seen, but when we add an enormous box-shadow we make if seen. I’ve used a blue coloration as an instance the thought above, however within the code we’ll use the identical coloration because the background:

.ribbon {
  --r: 20px; 
  --s: 20px; 
  --c: #d81a14;

  line-height: 1.6; 
  padding-inline: 1.2lh calc(var(--r) + .2lh);
  background: var(--c);
  clip-path: polygon(1lh 0,100% 0,calc(100% - var(--r)) 50%,100% 100%,1lh 100%,1lh calc(100% + var(--s)),.5lh calc(100% + var(--s) + var(--r)),0 calc(100% + var(--s)),0 100%);
  box-shadow: 0 0 0 999px var(--c); 
}

Lastly, we add a contact of shadow impact by introducing a gradient and one other box-shadow and we’re accomplished. Our CSS ribbon form is ideal!

You’re in all probability questioning how you can create the second ribbon (the inexperienced one). We do the identical factor however with a distinct polygon. We take the primary polygon and we invert it.

A polygon could be written like so:

clip-path: polygon(X1 Y1, X2 Y2, ..., Xn Yn)

To get the other form, you modify all Xi by 100% - Xi. So simple as that! Earlier than checking my code, attempt to do it alone utilizing the polygon of the primary ribbon.

Within the demo above, hover the shapes to note a pleasant animation. To attain it, we have to replace the polygon on hover by offsetting some factors. I received’t re-write the entire polygon on hover, however I’ll outline a CSS variable that may management the offset.

In the event you deal with the animation, you’ll discover that we have now three factors shifting to the left and three factors shifting down and to the left as effectively.

Arrows showing the points of the polygon and the direction in which they move

We replace the Xi of the factors shifting to left with Xi + d and we replace the Yi of the factors shifting doing with Yi + d. Then we merely replace the variable d to regulate the motion:

.ribbon {
  --d: 0px; 
  clip-path: polygon(calc(1lh + var(--d)) 0,100% 0,calc(100% - var(--r)) 50%,100% 100%,calc(1lh + var(--d)) 100%,calc(1lh + var(--d)) calc(100% + var(--s) + var(--d)),calc(.5lh + var(--d)) calc(100% + var(--s) + var(--r) + var(--d)),var(--d) calc(100% + var(--s) + var(--d)),var(--d) 100%);
}
.ribbon:hover {
  --d: .2lh;
}

In the event you see such a polygon for the primary time, it’s possible you’ll get confused, because it appears a bit scary. However in actuality, it’s not that complicated. We began with a easy polygon and we slowly added extra factors and extra calculations till we reached this complicated one.

Making a Rotated CSS Ribbon Form

Let’s sort out the second form. For this one, we’ll use the brand new trigonometric capabilities together with CSS variables and calc() just like the earlier one. To know the logic behind this form, let’s rotate it and preserve the textual content in a straight line.

A Z-like ribbon shape

I’m including a little bit of transparency to see the components behind the primary aspect. I’ll be utilizing pseudo-elements to create them. I’ve additionally added the blue define as an instance the realm of the aspect. This form can be managed with two variables:

.ribbon {
  --r: 30px;  
  --a: 15deg; 
}

The r is doing the identical job as with the earlier form. The a will management the rotation of the primary aspect and loads of different issues.

Let’s begin with the primary aspect. We will see from the determine that we have to reduce it from either side, so it’s possible you’ll logically consider using clip-path, however not this time. We’ll depend on a gradient coloration, the place the half we have to reduce could have a clear coloration:

.ribbon {
  --r: 30px;  
  --a: 15deg; 

  background:
    linear-gradient(calc(90deg + var(--a)),
      #0000 calc(1lh*sin(var(--a))),
      var(--c) 0 calc(100% - 1lh*sin(var(--a))),
      #0000 0
    );
}

Right here comes the geometry.

A geometric shape used to cut the corner triangle

The a is the angle variable we outlined. Contemplating this, the gradient must have an angle equal to 90deg + a, and the clear coloration ought to begin at 0 and cease at d. Doing a little math, d is the same as 1lh*sin(a). If we apply the identical logic on the opposite facet, we get the next code:

background:
  linear-gradient(calc(90deg + var(--a)),
    #0000 0% calc(1lh*sin(var(--a))),
    var(--c) calc(1lh*sin(var(--a))) calc(100% - 1lh*sin(var(--a))),
    #0000 calc(100% - 1lh*sin(var(--a))) 100%
  );

We do some optimization by eradicating the 0% and 100% (they’re implicit), and when we have now two consecutive coloration stops which might be equal, we will substitute the second with 0:

background:
  linear-gradient(calc(90deg + var(--a)),
    #0000 calc(1lh*sin(var(--a))),
    var(--c) 0 calc(100% - 1lh*sin(var(--a))),
    #0000 0
  );

We’re accomplished with the primary aspect, so let’s transfer to the pseudo-elements. Right here as effectively, we’d like some geometry tips to establish the scale.

Widths and heights marked on the Z ribbon shape

We will simply discover the peak H from the earlier determine we used to establish the gradient configuration. It’s equal to 1lh/cos(a). For the width W, it’s equal to (100% - x)*cos(a), the place 100% is the width of the primary aspect and x is that small half the place we have now the transparency. It’s equal to 1lh*tan(a).

Each pseudo-elements have the identical measurement, so our code is as follows:

.ribbon:earlier than,
.ribbon:after {
  content material: "";
  place: absolute;
  peak: calc(1lh/cos(var(--a)));
  width: calc(100%*cos(var(--a)) - 1lh*sin(var(--a)));
}

In the event you’re not snug with the mathematics and also you’re a bit misplaced with the system, it’s effective. You don’t have to precisely perceive them. The aim is to have the ability to alter the form utilizing CSS variables. The formulation are right here to make issues simpler and keep away from us coping with hard-coded values and magic numbers.

After the dimension, we must always accurately place every pseudo-element, rotate it, and use clip-path for the cutout half:

.ribbon:earlier than,
.ribbon:after {
  content material: "";
  place: absolute;
  remodel: translate3d(0,0,-1px);
  rotate: var(--a);
  peak: calc(1lh/cos(var(--a)));
  width: calc(100%*cos(var(--a)) - 1lh*sin(var(--a)));
  background: color-mix(in srgb,var(--c),#000 40%);
}
h1:earlier than {
  proper: 0;
  high: 0;
  transform-origin: high proper;
  clip-path: polygon(0 0,100% 0,100% 100%,0 100%,var(--r) 50%);
}
h1:after {
  left: 0;
  backside: 0;
  transform-origin: backside left;
  clip-path: polygon(0 0,100% 0,calc(100% - var(--r)) 50%,100% 100%,0 100%);
}

The code must be self-explanatory and the clip-path worth must be simple to grasp. We used extra complicated polygons with the primary form.

Observe using color-mix(), which permits me to create a darkish model of the primary coloration. I’m additionally utilizing a 3D translate with a adverse worth on the z-axis to deliver the pseudo-elements behind the primary aspect. You may assume that that is the job of z-index, but it surely received’t work as a result of some stacking context points that I’ve detailed in this Stack Overflow thread.

Now, if we rotate the aspect in the other way, we get our CSS ribbon form.

As with the earlier instance, I’ll allow you to dissect the code of the inexperienced ribbon and see what modifications I made to get the other form.

Conclusion

It was a enjoyable train, don’t you assume? We explored some fashionable CSS options like CSS variables, calc(), and trigonometric capabilities, and we mixed them to create fancy ribbon shapes.

If you would like extra, go try my full assortment of ribbon shapes. Attempt to construct a few of them alone earlier than checking the code. Will probably be a very good train to follow what you’ve realized right here.

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